Digital Art Museum
A Michael Noll    

The Beginnings of Computer Art in the United States: A Memoir

A Michael Noll (educator), Annenberg school for Communication, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA. USA

Three decades ago, such terms as computer art, virtual reality and computer animation had not yet entered our vocabulary. This was a time for the experimentation and innovation that produced today's industry of computer art and animation, along with new media for creative experiences with computers. The author has used digital computers in a variety of the visual arts, including still images, stereoscopic images, computer holography, three-dimensional animation, four-dimensional animation, interactive stereoscopic displays and input devices and, ultimately, three-dimensional force-feedback-the latter becoming a major component of today's virtual reality. This research and experimentation in computer art was performed during the 1960s. In this article the author reminisces and describes his early work.

This paper is published in Leonardo, Leonardo Vol. 27, No1, pp. 39-44, 1994.

Permission: sought



Essay to come